Summary of the Whole Process

             Quotes and Analysis: Blocks, Points, and General Themes

  1. Do research to find the ideas or character types that the author
         uses in the works you will be discussing.

  2. Find good quotes which illustrate some of these ideas first, before
         writing anything else on your paper!
         Put each quote in the middle of a separate page (9-15 lines down),
         leaving room for the later stuff which will go above and below your
         quote. Quotes are the exact words of the source.

      - Do not put any part of a quote or discussion on the back of a page!
         Treat the back as if it doesn't exist!

      - For rough drafts, write in dark ink, in readable form,
         with no frizzy paper.

 3. Quoted passages must always be completely indented on the
       left side
(1 inch).
       A. Handwritten (for rough draft): left margin only and
              don't double-space.
       B. Typed double-spaced is correct for whole paper [though Andrews
              likes single-spaced quotes better!].

 4. Quotes should not be too long, too short, too vague, or
       too boring:
       A. Excessively long  including much material not relevant to point.
       B. Too short to have enough meaningful detail.
       C. Summaries of general information which lack vivid detail of
             people or conditions.

 5. Quotes should be vivid and should clearly illustrate the idea
        under discussion.
      - Make quotes interesting, so readers can have an emotional as well
        as an intellectual reaction to them.
      - Make sure that the quotes have "bullability": good stuff that you
        can discuss thoroughly.

 6. Shorten long quotes to include the best parts of the incident,
      using your own stylistic ability to tie the best parts of the incident
      together. Use the ellipsis […] if you leave stuff out, but don't overuse it.

 7. Each POINT should be introduced with a clear and precise
       definition of the idea
to be discussed in the following related blocks.
      - Make sure that the idea is not too broad or too vague.

 8. Introductory material of the BLOCK should include:
       A. Appropriate  transitional phrases (next, secondly, however, etc.).
       B. A clear but short pithy statement  telling the reader exactly what
           you will prove in the following quote(s).
       C. The author and title of the work the quote came from, if it would
            not be redundant to give this information.

 9. Background and context (very important!):
       A. Give the who-what-when-where of the quote, so that the reader
            isn't dropped into the middle of an unknown situation and expected
            to understand an isolated quote.
      - Do not summarize the information that will be in your quote before
            you have given the reader the quote!    
             Give only a general idea of the nature of the quote.
       B. Lead into quote with a transitional phrase
            (often beginning with "when")
          - For a smooth transition, make sure that the last words of the
            transition match grammatically and stylistically with the first
            words of the quote.

10. Analysis following the quote may include clarification,
       judgment, and connections.
       A. Clarification: discussion of significant features of quote (not just
              repeating what was just said in the quote).
          - In poetry, especially, as well as in prose material, one can look
             at individual words and phrases which are unusual, obscure, or
             which graphically prove your point, and therefore need explanation.
          - Do not begin your analysis with the words
              "This is a good example because..."
          - Do not use the word "quote" anywhere in your paper.

       B. Possible types of judgment:
[Do not use the word "I" or "you" when stating your opinion!]
           1. Judgment: your opinion as to whether the behavior of the
               characters in the example is good or bad – or better or worse
                than average  and why!
              - What would a better person do?
              - What would a worse person do?
              - What would an average person do?
           2. Judgment: your opinion as to whether the author did a good job
                of presenting the idea.
                a. Technically, are the examples absurd or unrealistic or
                     poorly crafted?  Explain!
                b. Ideawise, is the author's presentation unrealistic or
                    Tell how and criticize.
           3. Remedy: what could or should characters or the author have
                 done to correct the situations? Explain!

       C. Connection: Give a contemporary application which illustrates
              how the quote reflects human nature or situations that exist today
              or at a different time or place than the quote.
              - Give enough concrete, specific details to prove to the reader
                 that you really understand your connection.

11. Points of themes may include two or three "blocks."
don't be repetitious in analysis of each block, saying the
        same thing over and over in succeeding points.
       Avoid repetitious analysis by using:
       A. Narrow analysis: Directly after the quote, use specific analysis
            which refers to that specific quote.
           - This may be clarification and judgment relating only to that quote.
       B. "Big Analysis": put general concluding statements, which may
             refer to all examples in a point, into a "big analysis" at the end
             of the whole point
             - A connection might also go in this "big analysis,"
               instead of putting a connection after each block, which might be

12. Do not use the following words or phrases in your paper unless
       they are part of a quote: I, you, me, my, we, our, us, quote,
        "This is a good example..." 
      - State your opinion as an authority.
            1st and 2nd-person personal pronouns weaken your argument.
            Say "It is!" not "I think it is!" or "You might do this."

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